Our reference publications

Our publications are translated from an original French version. Most of the publications available in English are part of a comprehensive serie of guides based on the outcomes of the Concerted Municipal Strategies (CMS) action-research programme, which took place from 2007-2010.

Strategy planning and municipal strategies for WASH


Guide 1/ How to develop a concerted municipal strategy for water and sanitation in large towns in Africa

Large towns in Africa, which generally consist of between 30,000 and 300,000 inhabitants, are increasingly faced with the challenge of developing and sustainably managing water and sanitation services. Fulfilling such a responsibility requires specific knowledge of the sector’s local needs and issues, as well as a pragmatic vision for defining means of intervention and prioritizing actions. Intended for elected and municipal officials, this guide provides a step-by-step methodology, from conducting the diagnostic through to formulating the strategy, which focuses on consultation with all stakeholders.
This guide is the result of a pilot undertaken within 15 large towns in Africa: Dschang, Ziguinchor, Koudougou, Abomey, Tahoua, Ebolowa, Rosso, Louga, Dolisie, Bandundu, Grand Bassam, Masaka, Moshi, Nyeri, Debre Birhan.

Guide 2/ How to create a regional dynamic to improve local water supply and sanitation services in small towns in Africa

Small towns in Africa, the size of which can vary from between 3,000 and 30,000 inhabitants, have specific characteristics as they tend to be situated midway between rural and urban. Too small to benefit from those opportunities available to large urban centers, particularly in terms of competencies for developing and managing services, they are also too large to be able to accommodate those community-based approaches prevalent in rural areas. This guide contains a methodology for developing a regional strategy for water and sanitation, as well as the courses of action to be followed to facilitate access to finance and mobilize the expertise required to provide back-up support and training to local authorities and service operators.
Developed by Hydroconseil, Guide No2 is the result of fieldwork undertaken in the regions of Brong Ahafo in Ghana, Centre-Est in Burkina Faso and Mopti in Mali.

Developing integrated sanitation services

Designing a national policy and strategies for sanitation
National hygiene and sanitation policies and strategies are essential to sector development: by defining the sector objectives and priorities, they facilitate negotiations with technical and financial partners and enable funding contributions to be allocated more appropriately.
This document sets out a methodology for conducting processes aimed at developing or improving national policies and strategies. Broken down into 12 steps, the methodology provided in this guide is intended for those sector actors, and ministries and technical departments responsible for sanitation in particular, wishing to improve the framework for action of all sanitation stakeholders


CMS Guide n°3/ How to analyze the demand of current and future users for water and sanitation services in towns and cities in Africa

How to analyze the demand of current and future users for water and sanitation services in towns and cities in Africa
Developed with a view to optimizing the allocation of financial resources and to promoting equity between users of water and sanitation public services, this guide provides decision-makers and development stakeholders with the key concepts and tools of intervention required to carry out robust and usable demand analyses.
This publication was written by Gilles Roger.

CMS Guide n°4 / How to select appropriate technical solutions for sanitation

Developed to supplement guides 1 and 2, the purpose of guide no.4 is to assist local contracting authorities and their partners in identifying those sanitation technologies best suited to the different contexts that exist within their town. The first part of the guide contains a planning process and a set of criteria to be completed; these help you to characterize each area of intervention so that you are then in a position to identify the most appropriate technical solutions. The second part of the guide consists of technical factsheets which give a practical overview of the technical and economic characteristics, the operating principle and the pros and cons of the 29 sanitation technology options most commonly used in sub-Saharan Africa.
This guide was developed in conjunction with GRET.

Guide CMS 5 / How to manage public toilets and shower

Although the construction of toilet blocks does not pose any major technical difficulty, the management of these blocks remains problematic. This explains why toilet blocks are frequently found to be in poor working order, dirty and not properly utilized by users. As a result, the blocks are gradually neglected and the practice of open defecation develops – with all the public health, environmental and social risks that this entails.
Thus, this publication sets out the different management models available for shared toilets and showers in schools, commercial public places, health centers and deprived neighborhoods. The guide reviews the principles that need to be respected and the possible options available to ensure proper and sustainable management of public toilet blocks. Whilst it does not claim to deal with or respond to all questions, this guide does provide those elements essential for ensuring local decision-makers are able to take appropriate decisions in order to provide access to hygiene and sanitation services in public places.
This guide is the result of a collaboration between pS-Eau and Urbaconsulting.

Guide CMS 6 / How to finance sanitation in sub-saharan Africa

The purpose of this guide is to increase awareness and understanding of the means of financing available for the sanitation chain. The first part of this publication provides a detailed list of all costs to be recovered: investment, operation, maintenance, studies and accompanying measures, for each segment of the sanitation chain (access, evacuation and treatment). In the second part, for each segment and in accordance with the type of facility and expenditure required, the potential sources of finance are compared, as are the relevant means of mobilizing and allocating finance for the benefit of users.
This guide was written by pS-Eau and Hydroconseil.



Guide CMS n°7. Non-conventional sewerage services. When to choose this option, how to implement this solution

The aim of this guide is to support contracting authorities, local decision-makers and their partners to develop their sanitation service by providing them with decision-making tools and practical methodological approaches. This guide will help these stakeholders determine whether non-conventional sewerage really is the most appropriate option for the area concerned. If this option is selected, it will also help them coordinate their project effectively and provide them with a clear understanding of the management methods that can be used and of the skills and know-how required.